Atypical antipsychotics are serotonin and dopamine antagonists, and are generally associated with fewer extrapyramidal side effects than typical antipsychotics, but with more metabolic side effects.3 They are the second-generation antipsychotics developed in the 1990s.2
- National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: prevention and management. Clinical guideline CG178. February 2014. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg178/chapter/1-Recommendations#first-episode-psychosis-2 (accessed March 2018).
- National Health Service (NHS). NHS Choices. Schizophrenia: treatment. 2018. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/schizophrenia/treatment/#antipsychotics (accessed March 2018).
- Guzman F. First vs Second Generation Antipsychotics. Psychopharmacology Institute, 2018. Available at: https://psychopharmacologyinstitute.com/antipsychotics-videos/first-second-generation-antipsychotics/ (accessed March 2018).
- Royal College of Psychiatrists. Antipsychotics, 2018. Available at: https://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/expertadvice/treatments/antipsychoticmedication.aspx (accessed March 2018).
- Meltzer HY, Bastani B, Kwon KY, Ramirez LF, Burnett S, Sharpe J. A prospective study of clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. I. Preliminary report. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1989; 99 Suppl: S68-72.
- Kane J, Marder S, Schooler N, Wirshing W, Umbricht D, Baker R, et al. Clozapine and haloperidol in moderately refractory schizophrenia: a 6-month randomized double-blind comparison. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001; 58: 965-72.
- Azorin JM, Spiegel R, Remington G, Vanelle JM, Péré JJ, Giguere M, et al. A double-blind comparative study of clozapine and risperidone in the management of severe chronic schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158(8): 1305-13.
- Ruberg SJ, Chen L, Stauffer V, Ascher-Svanum H, Kollack-Walker S, Conley RR, et al. Identification of early changes in specific symptoms that predict longer-term response to atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry 2011; 11: 23.